Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India, located in the far northeast. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Burma in the east, Bhutan in the west, and the People's Republic of China in the north. The majority of the territory is claimed by the People's Republic of China as part of South Tibet. The northern border of Arunachal Pradesh reflects the McMahon Line, a controversial 1914 treaty between the United Kingdom and a Tibetan government, which was never accepted by the Chinese government, and not enforced, by the Indian government until 1950. Itanagar is the capital of the state.
Arunachal Pradesh means "land of the dawn lit mountains in Sanskrit. It is also known as "land of the rising sun ("pradesh" means "state" or "region") in reference to its position as the easternmost state of India. Most of the people native to and/or living in Arunachal Pradesh are of Tibeto-Burman origin. A large and increasing number of migrants have reached Arunachal Pradesh from many other parts of India, although no reliable population count of the migrant population has been conducted, and percentage estimates of total population accordingly vary widely. Part of the famous Ledo Burma Road, which was a lifeline to China during World War II, passes through the eastern part of the state.
Established 20 February 1987
Largest city Itanagar
Governor Joginder Jaswant Singh (2008-)
Chief Minister Dorjee Khandu (2007-)
13 /km2 (34 /sq mi)
Literacy 62.8% (24th)
Official languages Hindi, Deori, Assamese, English, and many local languages.
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 83743 km2 (32333 sq mi)
Districts of Arunachal Pradesh:
Lower Dibang Valley
Upper Dibang Valley
The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. Areas that are at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalayas close to the Tibetan border enjoy an alpine or Tundra climate. Below the Upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a temperate climate. Areas at the sub-Himalayan and sea-level elevation generally experience humid, sub-tropical climate with hot summers and mild winters.
Arunachal Pradesh receives heavy rainfall of 80 to 160 inches (2,000 to 4,100 mm) annually, most of it between May and September.
Rivers & Natural population Regions
The Brahmaputra, India's major river enters Arunachal Pradesh from Tibet and flows into Assam from where it goes down to Bangladesh before falling into the Bay of Bengal. The state gets as much as five hundred centimeters of rain fall and this account for the large number of rivers and lakes in the region apart from extensive forests. The rivers Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Lohit and Tirap have divided the plains of Assam into valleys.
The People: -
The thin population of Arunachal is predominantly tribal in character and there are about 20 - 26 major tribes which are divided into a number of sub tribes. The principal tribes are Adis, Nishi, Apatani, Tagin, Mismi, Khampti, Noite, Wancho, Tangsha, Singpho, Monpa, Sherdukpen and Aka. These tribes speak their own tongues. The major social and cultural events of the state are very much associated with the tribal life.
Adis: -The Adis are the major group of tribes inhabiting the West Siang district. The different sub tribes groups of the Adis are Gallong, Janbe, Karka, Memba, Ashing, Bori, Bogum, Bagi, Pailibo, Minyong etc. Monship and Rashbeng, dormitories for boys and girls respectively, play an important role in the Adi society. Different sections of the Adis call these institutions by different names such as the Padams, Dere etc. It is customary for boys and girls to become the members of their respective institutions when they attain the age of ten. They remain in their respective dormitories till their marriage. There is no restriction for the boys of different Monship to visit girls in their Rashbengs. In course of such visits if a boy and girl happen to like each other, negotiations are carried out between the boys and the girls parents. If approved by their parents's formal marriage take place according to their custom.
The bride after marriage usually continues to live with her parents till the birth of her first child. It is expected that boy in the mean time, would be able to construct a house of his own.
In the Adi society descent is traced through the father and the property devolves on the male line and the children belong to the father's clan. If a child born in an extra martial relation is a boy, he belongs to the father's clan and if it is a girl, she belongs to mother's clan. The elder son generally set up their separate house-holds even while the father is alive though on principle. They have equal shares on the parents's property. They do not dispute with the youngest brother who stays with the parents and inherits the ancestral house by common consent. The widowed mother is considered a special responsibility of the eldest son, but in practice, she prefers to live with the youngest under the roof of her deceased husband's home.
Kebang - All important decisions of political and social matters as well as the disputes among the members of the community are tried and settled by the Kebang. The various kebangs are Bane Kebang, Bango Kebang, Bogum Bokang Kebang and Atek Kebang. In Bane Kebang all the male members of the village can take part and express their opinion freely. Bango kebang consists of the head Gams of the number of villages and it has one secretary and also some funds to manage. It mainly deals with inter village disputes and development problems. Atek Kebang is for the settlement of particular cases of disputes. The Bogum Bokang Kebang is a federal organisation-its jurisdiction extends to the whole district of Siang. The social customs and relations of inter village, inter-bango disputes, political and economic changes affecting their life etc are discussed in this Kebang. The Bogum Bokong adopt resolutions and recommends measures to the government for meeting them.
The main festivals celebrated by the Adis are Mopin and Solung
Fairs and Festivals
In Arunachal Pradesh festivals are celebrated throughout the year... in fact festivals form an essential part of the life of the tribals. Most of the festivals are related to agriculture and celebrated in a ritualistic manner. Festivals are celebrated either to thank God for his divine intervention or to pray for a good harvest. Dances form an essential part of their festivals and are performed to express their joy of life. Some of the important festivals are Mopin and Solung of Adis, Losar of Monpas, Sherdukpens and Boori-Boot of the Hill Miris, Dree of Apatanis, Si-doni of Tagins, Nyokum of Nishis, Reh of Idu Mishmis etc. Animal sacrifice is a habitual ritual in all festivals.
Arunachal Pradesh, North east India's remotest state, also known as 'Land of the Dawn-lit-Mountains' is the first Indian soil to greet the morning sun. Arunachal Pradesh is the northeastern tip of India with its borders touching China, Bhutan and Burma (Myanmar). Towards the south is Assam and Nagaland. The state offers a dazzling array of flora and fauna that is sure to enchant any tourist. More than 500 rare species of Orchids are found here. Its mysterious, powerful and beautiful rivers with faces and moods that change dramatically ever so often form the colorful lifelines. These are ideal for rafting and angling and the rugged terrain is ideal for trekking, hiking and holidaying in a serene atmosphere.
Itanagar- Capital: -
Itanagar in Papum pare district also known as the ' Land of the Dawnlit Mountains' is the beautiful capital of Arunachal. The historical city identified with the ancient Mayapur of the 14th and 15th century A. D. is scattered with light, earthquake-proof, wooden-framed buildings rising up the slopes of green hills. The residence of the Governor is situated on one peak while a Buddhist Temple crowns the other. Between these two building lie administrative offices, shops, daily bazars and thatched houses. The nearest airport is 67km away at Lilabari in Assam. The nearest railway station is Harmuty in Assam (near Banderdewa check gate) only 23 km from Naharlagun & 33 km from Itanagar. For accommodation contact Protocol Officer, Itanagar Phone : 0360-212010, 0360-212613
This historical fort of an irregular shape, built mainly with bricks is situated at the heart of the capital complex in Papum Pare district. There are three gates on three sides viz; Eastern, Western and Southern, which is said to be built by Ahom rulers. It is estimated that more than 80 lakhs of bricks, 45 cubic metres of stone and 46,300 man-days were required to build the fort.
The Buddhist Temple
This temple which is located on the top of a hill amidst gorgeous green gardens with yellow roof reflects the extensive Tibetan influence. There is a stupa erected in front of the shrine. The Dalai Lama planted a tree by the side of the shrine. The grounds of the temple afford a good view of Itanagar Town.
Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum
Visit : Daily, expect Mondays. The ground floor covers the images of tribal people. Collections include art, musical instruments, religious articles and wood carvings. The first floor contains the archaeological finds from Itafort, Noksaparbat and Malinithan in Lower Siang district. The textiles, weapons, ornaments are also kept on this floor. There is also a library and a handicraft centre which specialises in traditional Cane manufacture.
Ganga Lake (Gyaker Sinyi)
Ganga a natural Lake locally known as Gyaker Sinyi (confined water), 6km away from Itanagar situated on the foothills of the Himalayas, is a beautiful spot for outings, boating and picnics. This green forest lake surrounded by primeval vegetation, orchids masses on tall trees, tree ferns provides an insight to the magnificent forests of the state.
Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary, spread over an area of about 140.30 sq. km was established in 1978 and is situated in the Lower Subansiri district. With evergreen forests, the wild life present here are elephant, barking deer, tiger, leopard, serow, birds & orchids.
Situated on a small ridge, this park is in Naharlagun and has interesting botanical specimens. There is also a small zoo housed in the park. Handicrafts Centre run by the Industries Department offers a good range of shawls, carpets, carved caskets and the beautiful cane & bamboo work.
Tawang District: -
Tawang, the headquarters of the Tawang district (2085 sq.km) located on the Western tip of the state on a mountain side at 12000 ft above sea level, is the land of the Monpa tribes and a major centre of the Mahayana Buddhists. Tawang is famous for its 400 year old Buddhist monastery which overlooks the wide Tawang Valley.
Tawang is also ideal for trekking and hiking. On the way to Tawang lies the World's second highest pass at 14000 ft, the Se la Pass through a high altitude lake of crystal blue water. Both sides of the lake are decked with miles of rhododendrons. Bomdila- Tawang area especially around the Tawang Chu offers one of the best treks. The trek starting from Jong, located between Se- la and Tawang, to Mago is through forests studded with waterfalls. May and October are the best time for trekkers. There is also a Orchidarium at Tipi near the banks of the Kameng River in the West Kameng District, enroute Tawang.
Tawang Monastery or Gompa also known as the 'Galden Namgyal Lhatse', is a 400 year old Buddhist monastery of the Mahayana sect, built in the 17th century. It is situated at a height of 3500 meters or 10,000 ft at the Bhutan border. The monastery was founded by a monk, Mera Lama, a contemporary of the fifth Dalai Lama. It is a vast complex of 65 buildings - a treasure house of old scriptures, priceless images, painted tapestries, books and collection of gold lettered Buddhist scriptures. The "Parkhang" hall of the monastery houses the library which holds the rare hand written and block-printed 'Thankas' or manuscripts of revered books like 'Tangym', 'Kangyur' and 'Sungbhum'. The other rare works of Buddhist literature include 108 gold-embossed manuscripts of the 'Teaching of Lord Buddha' and 225 volumes of the explanations of Buddha's teachings covered with specially designed moth - proof silk adorned with paintings. There is a towering 18 ft high gilded statue of the Buddha in the monastery complex.
The Tawang Monastery is associated with the famous Torgva festival which is held in the eleventh Monpa month called the Dawa Chukchipah(i.e Dec-Jan as per the Buddhist). There is also a Craft Centre here producing fine woolen carpets of colourful designs.